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Thursday, December 11, 2014

Important branches of civil engineering

  • Construction engineering: This branch involves construction of highways, railroads, airports, power plants, bridges, tunnels, skyscrapers and so on. As per their abilities and position, engineers generally take care of different aspects of construction as well as business management. They have to manage project planning, costing and budgeting, scheduling, quality assurance, quality control, on site layout survey, material testing, material procurement, etc.
  • Hydraulic engineering: Engineers in this field primarily make their contribution in setting up structures associated with different water bodies. They contribute in the development of hydroelectric plants, dams, irrigation and navigable canals, reservoirs, bridges, culverts, storm sewers, water pipelines, etc.
  • Coastal and ocean engineering: This branch of civil engineering involves monitoring coastal areas and taking adequate steps to protect them from sea storms, flooding and erosion. These professionals also have a hand in the development of various sea port facilities
  • Transportation engineering: Engineers in this branch are concerned about the development of city roads, interstate highways, railroads, airfields, pavements, canals and urban mass rapid transport systems. They also play an active role in urban development and planning, traffic management and betterment of the transport system in the country.
  • Materials engineering: This branch of experts has to ensure the quality and durability of a vast variety of materials used in the development of different edifices. Material engineers usually deal with materials such as cement, concrete, concrete additives, metals and alloys, polymers and paints.
  • Structural engineering: Structural engineers are responsible for analysing different types of stresses and strains that a structure has to endure during and after it has been built. The study generally involves the identification of different types of loads that would act upon a structure and plans for making the structure safer from these loads. Structural engineers are also concerned about the overall strength of a structure when it is built so that it can withstand the onslaught of natural elements as well as human intervention.
  • Earthquake engineering: Seismic activity is the biggest enemy of all types of manmade structures. Experts who research the impact of earthquake on different types of edifices and implement quake resistant measures are referred to as earthquake engineers.
  • Urban engineering: Engineers responsible for the design and development of urban public utilities are categorised as urban engineers. Public works include structures such as city roads, pavements, fresh water pipelines, waste water disposal systems, public parks and so on. These engineers play an important role in urban planning as they are primarily responsible for setting up the core infrastructural requirements of an urban area.
  • Environment engineering: Although a relatively new field, this branch of civil engineering is rapidly gaining importance with the growing emphasis on environment protection and sustainability. These engineers have to develop strategies for protecting the environment from air, water and land pollution. They have to manage issues such as solid waste management, water treatment, air and water pollution, safe disposal of hazardous materials. Another dimension of this profile is the construction of buildings that are environmental friendly, energy efficient and green.

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